Scientific Literature Clostridium Difficile

  1. Kyne L, Warny M, Qamar A, Kelly CP. Association between antibody response to toxin A and protection against recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. Lancet 2001;357:189-93.
  2. Lee FE, Falsey AR, Halliley JL, Sanz I, Walsh EE. Circulating antibody-secreting cells during acute respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010;202:1659-66.
  3. Lee FE, Halliley JL, Walsh EE, et al. Circulating human antibody-secreting cells during vaccinations and respiratory viral infections are characterized by high specificity and lack of bystander effect. Journal of Immunology 2011;186:5514-21.
  4. Halliley JL, Kyu S, Kobie JJ, et al. Peak frequencies of circulating human influenza-specific antibody secreting cells correlate with serum antibody response after immunization. Vaccine 2010;28:3582-7.
  5. Lowy I, Molrine DC, Leav BA, et al. Treatment with monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins. N Engl J Med 2010;362:197-205.
  6. A Dictionary of Nursing. In: Online OR, ed. Nosocomial Infection; 2008.
  7. Rupnik M, Wilcox MH, Gerding DN. Clostridium difficile infection: new developments in epidemiology and pathogenesis. Nature reviews Microbiology 2009;7:526-36.
  8. Vital signs: preventing Clostridium difficile infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012;61:157-62.
  9. Surawicz CM. Reining in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection–who’s at risk? Gastroenterology 2009;136:1152-4.
  10. Pepin J, Valiquette L, Cossette B. Mortality attributable to nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated disease during an epidemic caused by a hypervirulent strain in Quebec. CMAJ 2005;173:1037-42.
  11. Kelly CP, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile–more difficult than ever. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1932-40.
  12. McDonald LC, Killgore GE, Thompson A, et al. An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2433-41.
  13. The Direct Medical cost o healthcare-associated Infections in US hospitals and the Benefits of Prevention. (Accessed at
  14. Bartlett JG, Moon N, Chang TW, Taylor N, Onderdonk AB. Role of Clostridium difficile in antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. Gastroenterology 1978;75:778-82.
  15. Just I, Gerhard R. Large clostridial cytotoxins. Reviews of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology 2004;152:23-47.
  16. Schirmer J, Aktories K. Large clostridial cytotoxins: cellular biology of Rho/Ras-glucosylating toxins. Biochimica et biophysica acta 2004;1673:66-74.
  17. Voth DE, Ballard JD. Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005;18:247-63.
  18. Lyerly DM, Lockwood DE, Richardson SH, Wilkins TD. Biological activities of toxins A and B of Clostridium difficile. Infect Immun 1982;35:1147-50.
  19. Lyerly DM, Saum KE, MacDonald DK, Wilkins TD. Effects of Clostridium difficile toxins given intragastrically to animals. Infect Immun 1985;47:349-52.
  20. Leav BA, Blair B, Leney M, et al. Serum anti-toxin B antibody correlates with protection from recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Vaccine 2010;28:965-9.
  21. Katchar K, Taylor CP, Tummala S, Chen X, Sheikh J, Kelly CP. Association between IgG2 and IgG3 subclass responses to toxin A and recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;5:707-13.
  22. Gerding DN, Johnson S. Management of Clostridium difficile infection: thinking inside and outside the box. Clin Infect Dis 2010;51:1306-13.
  23. Cohen SH, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:431-55.
  24. Crobach MJ, Dekkers OM, Wilcox MH, Kuijper EJ. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID): data review and recommendations for diagnosing Clostridium difficile-infection (CDI). Clin Microbiol Infect 2009;15:1053-66.
  25. Eastwood K, Else P, Charlett A, Wilcox M. Comparison of nine commercially available Clostridium difficile toxin detection assays, a real-time PCR assay for C. difficile tcdB, and a glutamate dehydrogenase detection assay to cytotoxin testing and cytotoxigenic culture methods. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47:3211-7.
  26. Goldenberg SD, Dieringer T, French GL. Detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in diarrheal stools by rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2010;67:304-7.
  27. de Boer RF, Wijma JJ, Schuurman T, et al. Evaluation of a rapid molecular screening approach for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in general and subsequent identification of the tcdC Delta117 mutation in human stools. Journal of microbiological methods 2010;83:59-65.
  28. Hu MY, Maroo S, Kyne L, et al. A prospective study of risk factors and historical trends in metronidazole failure for Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;6:1354-60.
  29. Hu MY, Katchar K, Kyne L, et al. Prospective derivation and validation of a clinical prediction rule for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Gastroenterology 2009;136:1206-14.
  30. Abou Chakra CN, Pepin J, Valiquette L. Prediction tools for unfavourable outcomes in Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review. PLoS ONE 2012;7:e30258.

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